Fpr2 Deficiency Alleviates Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Through Reducing Body Weight Gain and Inhibiting Inflammation Mediated by Macrophage Chemotaxis and M1 Polarization

Obesity and related inflammation are critical for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) plays important roles in host immune responses and inflammation-related diseases. We found that Fpr2 expression was elevated in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet (HFD)–induced obese mice and db/db mice. The systemic deletion of Fpr2 alleviated HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, Fpr2 deletion in HFD-fed mice elevated body temperature, reduced fat mass, and inhibited inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and M1 polarization in metabolic tissues. Bone marrow transplantations between wild-type and Fpr2–/– mice and myeloid-specific Fpr2 deletion demonstrated that Fpr2-expressing myeloid cells exacerbated HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, glucose/lipid metabolic disturbances, and inflammation. Mechanistic studies revealed that Fpr2 deletion in HFD-fed mice enhanced energy expenditure probably through increasing thermogenesis in skeletal muscle; serum amyloid A3 and other factors secreted by adipocytes induced macrophage chemotaxis via Fpr2; and Fpr2 deletion suppressed macrophage chemotaxis and lipopolysaccharide-, palmitate-, and interferon-–induced macrophage M1 polarization through blocking their signals. Altogether, our studies demonstrate that myeloid Fpr2 plays critical roles in obesity and related metabolic disorders via regulating muscle energy expenditure, macrophage chemotaxis, and M1 polarization.