Pediatric Diabetes

 Genetics of type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells leading to insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes in children, and its incidence is on the rise. This article reviews the current knowledge on the genetics of T1D. In particular, we discuss the influence of HLA and non-HLA genes on T1D risk and disease progression through the preclinical stages of the disease, and the development of genetic scores that can be applied to disease prediction. Racial/ethnic differences, challenges and future directions in the genetics of T1D are also discussed.