Pediatric Diabetes

 The burden of common infections in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: A Pediatric Health Information System study
 
Background People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased infection risk. The healthcare utilization of pediatric and adolescent diabetic patients with infection is not well defined. This study evaluates the number of pediatric and adolescent patients with DM that seek medical treatment for infection management and assesses its socioeconomic impact. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database on children and adolescents with DM who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) or were hospitalized for infection management from 2008 to 2014. The PHIS database collects admission, demographic, and economic data from 44 freestanding children's hospitals across the United States. Results In total, 123?599 diabetic patient encounters were identified (77% type 1 DM, 23% type 2 DM). ED visits and hospitalizations for type 1 DM and type 2 DM increased throughout the study period. Total charges for these encounters were greater than $250 million dollars per year and increased each year. Infection encounters make up more than 30% of that cost while accounting for only 14% of the visits. Respiratory infections were the most common type of infection followed by skin and soft tissue infections for both ED care and inpatient hospitalizations. Patients with infections had longer hospital length of stay and higher cost per day than those without infections. Conclusions Children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 DM commonly present to the ED and require hospitalization for infection evaluation and management. Encounters with infection make up a large proportion of a growing economic burden on the United States? healthcare system. As the prevalence of DM grows, this burden can be expected to become even more significant. Cost-effective strategies for the prevention of infection in pediatric patients with DM are needed.