Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

 Genetically modified mouse models to investigate thyroid development, function and growth
The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones (TH), which are essential regulators for growth, development and metabolism. The thyroid is mainly controlled by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that binds to its receptor (TSHR) on thyrocytes and mediates its action via different G protein-mediated signaling pathways. TSH primarily activates the Gs-pathway, and at higher concentrations also the Gq/11-pathway, leading to an increase of intracellular cAMP and Ca2+, respectively. To date, the physiological importance of other G protein-mediated signaling pathways in thyrocytes is unclear.