Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

 Analytical Considerations and General Diagnostic and Therapeutic Ramifications of Milk Hormones during Lactation
In this review, we will discuss the changes that occur in the mammary gland from pregnancy to lactation and the issues surrounding the analysis of circulating and milk hormones during the stages of lactogenesis. There is a cascade of events that must occur to achieve milk synthesis, milk ejection, and successful transfer to the breastfeeding infant. The adequacy and success of this process is no small measure and the assessment of milk production, the hormones involved in this process and the ability to properly diagnose conditions and causes of low milk supply are critical for the health and well-being of the mother-infant breastfeeding dyad.