Journal of Endocrinology

 Lack of NOD2 attenuates ovariectomy-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclasts

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. It interacts with serine–threonine kinases to induce activation of nuclear factor B (NF-B), which is important for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) signaling. We tested the idea that NOD2 modulates bone metabolism via an action on osteoclasts (OCs). The absence of NOD2 reduced ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice, and lowered the area and the activity of OCs, by impairing RANKL signaling. It also reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as of NF-B-DNA binding upon RANKL exposure. NOD2 was found to physically interact with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1, and this led to increased production of ROS in OCs. Our data suggest that NOD2 contributes to bone loss in estrogen deficiency by elevating ROS levels in OCs.